All about magic mushrooms: a complete guide for your first trip
It's no surprise that general interest in magic mushrooms has skyrocketed in recent years. Magic mushrooms, also known as hallucinogenic mushrooms, mushrooms or even “magic mushrooms” can offer a fun and entertaining escape in our life. Research shows that magic mushrooms also have incredible potential for improving mental health and well-being when used in the right conditions and in the right way.
Get to know the psilocybin-producing mushrooms
After decades of senseless bans led by the war on drugs, magic mushrooms are back in the middle of the conversation and many people are eager to give it a try. We believe that information allows us to take control of our lives and gives us the power to make free and informed decisions. Mushrooming is like climbing a mountain. The views are worth it, but that also means you need to be prepared. Some risks may arise along the way. This guide is intended to serve as a roadmap for you to navigate through an auspicious experience.
How to prepare for a mushroom trip? A look at psilocybin
Psilocybin, the main psychedelic compound in magic mushrooms, binds to a serotonin receptor in the brain to produce what scientists call an “altered state of consciousness”. In these states, perception is distorted, the sense of time is diluted, and reality is experienced in an entirely different way. Psilocybin can cause hallucinations and intense introspective experiences which can be categorized into the realms of spirituality or mysticism .
These states can open your mind to ideas that you might not have thought of in a so-called “normal” state of mind. Having these experiences can become a healing and inspiring process for many people. Mushrooms can instill a sense of awe and wonder and ultimately help us become wiser and more compassionate people. They can also open the door to beautiful and fun experiences that can change the way we think about reality and everyday life.
However, being under the influence of mushrooms can also lead to a bad-trip, which often includes paranoia, anxiety, panic attacks or temporary loss of control over reality. In order to avoid unpleasant surprises, experienced mushroom eaters recommend following a few simple principles.
Avoid the "bad trip"
Be at ease: Psilocybin can considerably disrupt “normal” psychological processes by leaving us facing the harsh realities of the world or facing questions about ourselves which normally are buried deep within us and which emerge from the outside. 'a knock. This is why you should take mushrooms when you have been in a balanced emotional state for a few weeks. Also make sure you got enough sleep the night before, as fatigue can negatively impact your trip.
Feel Safe: Make sure you are in a comfortable, familiar place where you feel at peace and serene. Avoid taking mushrooms if something in the environment makes you uncomfortable, for example, or if you feel the place is dangerous.
Disconnect: Keep your phone off for as long as your trip lasts so you won't be disturbed in your inner journey. Make sure you don't have anything to do, family or work obligations or the like, because once the effects start chances are you won't be able to deal with them properly. Calling your chores in the middle of a trip can be a good reason to panic.
Choose Your Travel Companion: It is not emphasized enough, but human beings are “social creatures” and the presence of a friend or foe can make a difference by affecting your whole state of mind. Do not take mushrooms with people whom you do not trust completely or with whom you feel unwell.
The first time ?
If it is a first for you to consume mushrooms or any other hallucinogen for that matter, you should have a “travel keeper”, such as an informed consumer. His job ? It is to be a connection to the real world in case you lose your self-control too much, so it can help you get back “on the ground”. Being under the effect of the product can quickly make you lose the sense of reality, you can have difficulty distinguishing the dream from reality. This can put you at physical risk, so having someone you trust to watch over you will make the experience much more enjoyable.
A good travel sitter should keep a low profile, unless you need their help.
Finally, let go: if you are in a safe environment and can let go of your earthly responsibilities for a few hours, it is time to give in to the experience. Do not try to control or direct what happens to you under the influence of the fungus. Become an active observer. Remember that whatever happens to you at that time is part of the experience and as such can provide positive insight even though it may seem unpleasant or uncomfortable at the time.
Trust that whatever you see, feel or imagine exists in the realm of mushroom travel and cannot hurt you in real life. This state of mind will allow you to explore your consciousness without fear or prejudice.
How long does the mushroom trip last?
From ingestion to descent (dissipation of effects), a mushroom trip, in general, lasts between 4 and 6 hours. The first effects occur after about XNUMX minutes, but it can be up to an hour depending on the dose and individual metabolism.
It is recommended that you be patient and calm while you wait for the effects to come in, becoming anxious or taking a second dose is really not a thing to do, as you are sure to risk taking too much and it doesn't. there is no way to stop the journey once your flight has started.
At the start, a slow rise invades you, after two or three hours, peak effects, like “sensory peaks” remain to come. The temporality of the ingestion varies depending on the method used to eat it, we will understand and explain all that to you.
The descent begins after “peaks” generally 6 hours after ingestion. With the direct effects dissipated, you may feel dizzy, tired, or overly sensitive to real life stimuli. Hence the need to take mushrooms on a day when you are completely free from your daily constraints. It is recommended to take your mushrooms on a day when you are free to rest the next day.
Which magic mushrooms to choose and what is the right dose?
Psilocybe Cubertis has become the most commonly used species due to its ease of cultivation. There are over 200 species of psilocybin-producing fungi found in nature.
Different species containing very different psilocybin levels from each other lead to very diverse strengths. Note that psilocybin levels can also vary between strains of the same species.
Like any medicine of natural origin, the concentration of active ingredients can also vary depending on the part of the fungus concerned. The hat often contains more psilo than its stem. All of this means that measuring a dose of mushroom is not an exact science. There are guidelines that may be helpful to you based on the suggested amounts of dried psilocybin.
Your mushrooms therefore come in two variants: fresh or dried. It does not change the effects, but will change the total weight, dry mushrooms are lighter than fresh ones, they contain less water unlike fresh mushrooms.
The best way to measure a dose is to use a scale.
Recommended dosage: A dose of between 0,5 and 1,5 grams of dried mushrooms should be a good start to feeling the effects of psilocybin in your body and mind. This is the recommended dose for a first trip and we strongly recommend that you do not take more. Research has shown that bad trips are more likely to occur at high doses.
Being under the influence of mushrooms is a very strange new experience, which can be overwhelming at first. This is why it is important to get used to being in this state before switching to higher doses. We recommend that you start with a low dose (no more than 1,5 grams) and then work your way up to a higher dose on your next experience.
Veteran dosage: between 1,5 and 3 grams, you should feel a strong psychedelic effect. This amount should be enough for most people to experience a precious journey into the mysterious and awe-inspiring world of mushrooms.
3 grams or more should take you to the moon and back. This is an area that should only be explored by experienced users. Make sure you know your reactions well and have had a number of positive experiences with magic mushrooms before taking more than 3 grams. Either way, 5 grams should be the last frontier for anyone who doesn't have years of experience in psychedelic soul-searching.
How to eat mushrooms and what method?
In order for magic mushrooms to reach their full potential in your body, it is recommended that you be on an empty stomach, taking mushrooms without eating will not give you a more intense “high” or a faster effect. If you need to eat something before your trip, eat as light as possible, easy to digest, a salad or fruit for example.
Now, with an empty stomach and ready, let's take a look at the most common ways to eat mushrooms.
The caveman style: There is no secret to eating mushrooms other than putting them in your mouth and swallowing them. If you're brave and don't want to beat around the bush, you can just chew them up and swallow them raw.
Sweet me up: Since most people find the taste of mushrooms strong, bitter and quite unpleasant, it is common to mix them with a sweet drink in order to mask its intense flavor. Any smoothie or fruit juice will do just fine. If your mushrooms are dried, grind them in a coffee grinder or failing that, crumble them by hand, or pound them with a kitchen pestle or even, you can just cut them with a sharp knife.
The more you crush the mushrooms, the easier it will be for your stomach to digest them. Keep in mind that mushrooms can be hard on the digestive tract, so it is normal to experience symptoms of moderate poisoning after taking them, such as nausea (sometimes leading to vomiting), headache, swelling. drowsiness and muscle weakness.
Mushroom tea : In order to reduce nausea and stomach-related symptoms, some users advise brewing magic mushroom infusion.
Mushroom tea is basically a homemade psilocybin extract that can be much easier to digest.
To make a mushroom tea, it is enough to grind the dry mushrooms as finely as possible and put them in boiling water, let it steep for about fifteen minutes. Filter your mushroom debris and enjoy. The effect occurs quickly, because in this form the stomach does not need to break down the fungi. The overall trip can also be shorter but more intense because the mushrooms infused in the water will not go through the slow process of digestion.
Feel free to add herbs and honey to the water to enhance the flavor of your mushroom tea. You can simply add your favorite tea bag or experiment by mixing mushrooms with natural herbs like lavender, ginger or chamomile.
A lemony surprise : Another way to avoid eating the mushrooms is to use a technique called lemon tekking. The active compound in the fungus, psilocybin, is synthesized into psilocin by our body's metabolism. Psilocybin is actually a prodrug , which is broken down by our body into psilocin, which is the active ingredient that interacts with receptors in our brain. By soaking the ground mushrooms in pure lemon juice for about 15 minutes, we can help speed up this process, as the citric acid in lemon is believed to break down the psilocybin into psilocin ahead of time.
By chemically pre-digesting the mushrooms in a cup, they will start their effect sooner and eventually with more intensity. Experienced “tekkers” say they generally need less mushroom to achieve the same effect.
What to do in the event of a bad trip?
Those who experiment with mushrooms often speak of the notoriously dreaded bad trip. A bad trip is an unpleasant experience that occurs when a person under the effects of a psychedelic cannot control the ugly thoughts or feelings they are experiencing.
Bad trips aren't necessarily bad, as they can open up a catharsis of negative emotions that can purge you of untreated trauma. However, most people would prefer not to find themselves entangled in a personal hell of repeating anxiety and anguish.
There are several things you can do if you feel like you are going on a bad trip.
Breathing: Deep breathing can help you relax and regain your roots, reducing your anxiety. Remember that you have consumed a psychoactive product and that what you feel is largely related to its influence on your mind, this feeling at an end, this discomfort passes over time.
Look for company: If you are with friends or a trip sitter, tell them what is happening to you. Communicating your feelings can help you overcome them and figure out how to transition to a happier state of mind.
Change something: your mushroom-affected self is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. If you realize you are walking into a lousy place, try changing the conditions around you. If you're listening to music, change the genre or turn it off. If you are in a dark room, take a walk outside with your travel sitter. If you are meditating and bad thoughts occur to you, try to distract yourself with something silly.
If nothing else works: Remember that all negative emotions experienced during a mushroom trip will undoubtedly end once the effect wears off. If you don't think that anything you're doing is helping you end a bad trip, sit back and wait for the hours to pass. You will invariably feel better after the psilocybin leaves your system.
A word of warning: are mushrooms safe?
Magic mushrooms are considered safe, although bad experiences can happen, they usually don't leave significant scars. However, mushrooms are not child's play, there is always a risk associated with any consumption of products and it is in the sense of the responsibility of each one to determine if he is able to live this type of. experience. If you're healthy and don't have a mental health issue, your experience with mushrooms should be fine.
Otherwise, or if you are taking any medications such as antidepressants, you should talk to your doctor before taking mushrooms, psilocybin may interfere with your treatment. Also avoid if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or have blood pressure problems.
Psilocybin has been shown to be extremely useful in the treatment of depression and anxiety
However, all the research emphasizes the importance of an accompanying therapist in treatment assisted by psilocybin. A trained professional can guide a patient through the journey and help them understand an otherwise confusing and unsettling experience.
If you are suffering from major depression, grief, or any anxiety-related disorder, taking magic mushrooms unsupervised will not be a miracle cure. However, you can seek out an experienced guide, or a psychedelic retreat that can accompany you on your healing process towards mental well-being.
Are magic truffles the same as magic mushrooms?
Known to mankind for centuries, magic mushrooms have been the source of transcendental experimentation for many people around the world. A brief, but intense, period of research on psilo took place in the 40s through the 60s, interrupted by lawmakers who banned it outright in most countries. These mysterious little comrades have become taboo in most Western countries since the second half of the 20th century.
Today, psilocybin-producing mushrooms are slowly re-entering Western society. In recent years, a particular variant of these psychedelic mushrooms has grown in popularity: the so-called "magic truffles".
What are magic truffles? How do they differ from magic mushrooms? Are they better, worse or the same?
In short, there is no major difference in magic truffles other than how they look and the fact that they grow underground, which makes them legal in some jurisdictions like the Netherlands.
Magic mushrooms owe their psychotropic effects to a particular substance they produce called psilocybin. When consumed, psilocybin is metabolized by the human body and converted into psilocin, a very potent hallucinogen.
Psilocybin can induce psychedelic experiences in humans by interacting with a special type of receptor in the brain called serotonin 2A, which, oddly enough, is the same type of receptor that binds to other psychedelics like LSD, mescaline and DMT.
Psilocybin is naturally found in over 200 species of fungi, most of which belong to a genus biologists call Psilocybe Mushrooms. Magic mushrooms are a natural biological plant for psilocybin. They essentially take elements from their environment to synthesize psilocybin as well as a large number of other natural tryptamines.
Today, clinical trials by top researchers across Europe and North America have put psilocybin-containing mushrooms back into the limelight of mainstream medicine and wellness circles.
Vast amounts of anecdotal evidence, as well as a growing body of clinical research show that the psychoactive effects of psilocybin can induce altered states of consciousness which can have very powerful healing potential if used in the right setting.
A chemically isolated version of psilocybin is currently undergoing phase 2 human clinical trials to assess its effectiveness in the treatment of depression resistante treatment and other mental disorders.
What exactly are magic truffles?
Some species of fungi produce fruiting bodies which we call mushrooms or truffles.
When we look at these mushrooms, we are only looking at part of the whole. Under the ground, the fungi spread out in the form of spawn: a branch-shaped tissue which, like the roots of a tree, is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the environment.
Some fungal species produce a compact mass of hardened mycelium called a “sclerotia”. The sclerotia of psilocybin-producing mushrooms are what we normally call 'magic truffles'.
“It's basically a special form of mycelium. It's a state in which, underground, the fungus compacts its mycelium into a truffle shape, ”said Marshall Tyler, research director at Fied Trip Health, a Canadian company working on research and development on psychedelics.
Sclerotia is produced by the fungus as a means of storing food for long periods of time in case nutrients in the environment become depleted. Not all psilocybin-producing fungi form sclerotia, but those that do store psilocybin and other alkaloids in it, as can be found in their fruiting bodies.
The sclerotia of psilocybin-producing fungi is sometimes referred to as "philosopher's stones" or "sorcerer's stones".
Although they may look different from mushrooms, magic truffles contain significant amounts of psilocybin and other compounds that will produce a psychedelic high in the same way as magic mushrooms.
There is nothing in the truffles themselves that could explain a difference in the effect they produce compared to magic mushrooms. This is because psilocybin mushrooms themselves can vary in potency and effect depending on their species and even between cultivars of the same species.
Like cannabis, in herbal medicine and whole plant medicine, psilocybin fungi are thought to work by combining different compounds, this is called “entourage effect“. Different varieties can exhibit different chemical compositions, resulting in significant variability in their effects.
Psilocybin induces altered states of consciousness which includes hallucinations, visual or auditory, but also changes in perceptions, a loss of time and often a feeling of euphoria.
When all the conditions are right and your trip has gone well, according to some who have recounted their sensory journey, consuming magic truffles is one of the most meaningful and overwhelming moments of their lives.
However, just like magic mushrooms, if taken in the wrong circumstances or in high doses, magic truffles can cause nausea, intoxication, panic attacks, bad trips and can lead to psychotic episodes in patients. people with a genetic predisposition to psychosis.
Why are magic truffles popular? Are they legal?
Psilocybin was banned in most countries in 1971 after the signing of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, a United Nations treaty that designated psilocin, cannabis, and other drugs as poisonous substances.
Why magic truffles have become such a buzzword these days has little to do with their effect and much to do with their legal status.
“At the end of the day, we're working within the framework that we're allowed to work, and I think that's the most important thing to know,” said Todd Shapiro, CEO of Red Light Holland, a Canadian company that develops, distributes, and sells magic truffles for the Dutch smart-shop market, where they are most often found.
While psilocybin became illegal internationally in 1971, magic mushrooms continued to be sold in the Netherlands, a country which has traditionally passed lax laws on the criminalization of drugs.
However, the country banned magic mushrooms in 2007, after a teenage girl committed suicide under the influence of legally purchased mushrooms. This ban hasn't stopped magic mushroom growers from keeping the supply chain alive, however, by exploiting a loophole in the law.
According to Dutch law, magic mushroom sclerotia does not fall under the 2007 ban. This has propelled magic truffles to the forefront of the Dutch psychedelic scene, where a wide range of products can be found. of legal truffles, with quality packaging, dosage information and contraindications.
“We made it look like something that could be prescribed. But it's a natural product, ”says Shapiro of Red Light.
Currently, magic truffles can be found in markets other than the Netherlands. However, most countries - with the exception of Brazil, Jamaica, and some US jurisdictions - still consider any product containing psilocybin illegal, which means purchasing magic truffles can still be sanctioned by the law.
The entourage effect in magic mushrooms
The combined action of magic mushroom compounds can produce the overall psychedelic experience. The term "entourage effect" refers to the synergistic interaction of two or more different molecules when these molecules are co-administered, for example when a person ingests a natural extract or an engineered formulation of components. This hypothesis has received considerable attention in the cannabis industry, where hundreds of cannabinoids have been identified. The entourage effect is also a critical factor in the food and beverage industry, where multiple different molecules co-create a person's perception of taste, smell, mouthfeel, and taste. 'other sensations.
The entourage effect may also be important in the psilocybin industry and in research into the effects of magic mushrooms and other compounds in natural psychedelic organisms. Psilocybin is the most abundant compound in many species of magic mushrooms. 3 However, this is only one of the many active components it contains. Additionally, the evidence presented below indicates that these molecules can work synergistically.
Scientific data suggesting the entourage effect in magic mushrooms
Considering the importance of the interaction of different compounds for the physiology of the human body, it is interesting to note that there is little research on how the known derivatives of psilocybin interact with each other and receptors in the brain. But in all fairness, one of the main reasons for this is that it is only now that researchers on a larger scale are coming to understand that magic mushrooms are not limited to psilocybin and psilocin. Here are three examples from the scientific literature on the entourage effect in magic mushrooms, offering tantalizing results for further exploration by curious researchers.
In a 1989 article, German scientist, researcher and author Jochen Gartz used “keen insight” to analyze data from 24 cases of accidental ingestion of the magic mushrooms inocybe aerogiascens. It also reviewed the data on the effects of ingesting species high in psilocybin and psilocin. From his analysis he found a synergy between magic mushroom compounds.
Dr Gartz noticed that people who ingested I. aeruginascens reported only euphoric experiences. 1 He compared these experiences to accounts of people who used magic mushrooms with great psilocybin and psilocin content for hallucinogenic purposes. He described these experiences as an "often mild and in some cases deep dysphoric mood" accompanied by psychosis, panic and anxiety.
Besides the types and amounts of psychedelic compounds contained in magic mushrooms, a variety of factors are at play which culminates in the overall experience of magic mushrooms for the user. Dr. Gartz acknowledges this in his article. But he says comparing the effects caused by I. aeruginascens compared to species with high levels of psilocybin and psilocin demonstrates that there are interactions involving molecules that affect the psychedelic experience.
Aeruginascin appears to modify the pharmacological action of psilocybin to produce a consistently euphoric mood when ingesting mushrooms.
In more detail, Dr Gartz states: “It appears that large amounts of aeruginascin, an indole derivative, may alter the pharmacological action of psilocybin to give a euphoric mood during psychosis with hallucinations due to the ingestion of I. aeruginascens. " Dr Gartz concludes by calling for more research on the effects of aeruginascin and the entourage effect: “In order to establish the specific action of aeruginascin, studies on human ingestion of aeruginascin with and no additional application of psilocybin should be carried out. "
Matsushima et al., 2009
This team of researchers compared the effects of an extract of Psilocybe argentipes to psilosybine on burying behavior in mice. This burying behavior is a model of animal behavior used by scientists to study anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The results of the study showed that the same dose of mushroom extract and pure psilocybin was effective in reducing the burial behavior of marble. But even more interesting was the finding that psilocybin mushroom extract was more effective at the same dose in reducing behavior than pure psilocybin alone. A dose of 0,1 to 1,0 g / kg was significant in reducing the number of buried beads without affecting the overall locomotor activity of the mice.
Interestingly, the data for P. argentipes showed an inverted bell curve for the relationship between dose level and the number of beads buried by mice. The authors note that this is an unusual result. Many chemicals show a proportional relationship in the marble burial test, meaning that higher doses reduce the number of buried beads as well as the locomotor activity in mice. The authors summarize the overall results of the study by saying:
These results suggest that the inhibition of marble burial behavior by P. argentipes is due to the involvement of a variety of psychoactive substances.
Zhuk et al., 2015
Further evidence for a possible entourage effect of magic mushrooms was published by Zhuk and colleagues in 2015. 6 They found that the mushroom extracts were on the order of ten times more potent in behavioral tests in vivo serotonin 5-HT 2A (as demonstrated using the head-contraction response in mice) than pure psilocin. Specifically, they observed that a mushroom extract containing only about 10% by mass of the total psilocybin derivatives elicited a similar behavioral response in mice, compared to an equal mass of 100% pure psilocin.
The authors concluded that their data "confirmed the strong synergistic interaction of the psychotropic components of used fungal fungi" and indicated that the presence of the other hallucinogenic compounds indoleamine in the extracts used giving [gave] the synergistic effect [which] influenced the serotonergic system.
Historically, psilocybin and psilocin have received all the attention when it comes to studying and discussing magic mushroom compounds. It's hard to overestimate how essential these two compounds are to the psychedelic experience. However, the next big story could be the entourage effect - how all of the active compounds in magic mushrooms work together and with the receptors to produce the overall psychedelic effect for the user. The few scientific studies that have been done offer a brief but intriguing overview of the entourage effect. A better understanding of this concept could lead to more effective therapies and greater opportunities for improving people's lives.
What are the derivatives of psilocybin?
There are many compounds closely resembling psilocybin from the point of view of chemical structure. However, chemical and pharmacological knowledge of these psilocybin derivatives is scarce.
Magic mushrooms (also known as psilocybin mushrooms or psychedelic mushrooms) contain many molecules in addition to psilocybin. For the most part, these psilocybin derivatives (aka psilocybin analogues) can be described as a family of tryptamine compounds. In this context, the term psilocybin derivatives refers to a collection of molecules sharing a common chemical structure with psilocybin.
Psilocybin derivatives share a tryptamine nucleus attached to an ethylamino group, as shown in Figure 1. Groups designated by an R can be modified as needed to define specific molecules in this chemical family.
For example, psilocybin is described by replacing donated R groups with atoms as shown below.
R3 = R4 = R6 = R7 = R8 = R9 = hydrogen atom (H)
R5 = phosphate ester group = OPO (OH) 2
R1 = R2 = methyl group = CH 3
Applying these selections results in the psilocybin molecule, as shown in Figure 2.
Other examples of psilocybin derivatives include:
- Psilocin - Dephosphorylated psilocybin.
- Norpsilocin - Psilocin with a methyl in the ethylamino group.
- Aeruginascin - Psilocybin with three methyl groups in the ethylamino group.
- Baeocystin - Psilocybin with one methyl in the ethylamino group.
- Norbaeocystin - Psilocybin without a methyl group on the ethylamino group.
- Bufotenin - Psilocin substituted on the 5 th carbon instead of the 4 th.
- Bufotenidine - Bufotenin with three methyl groups on the ethylamino group.
Why are psilocybin derivatives important?
Psilocybin derivatives are important because what are considered minor chemical differences in one molecule can make a big difference in the body. For example, consider the difference between amphetamine and methamphetamine. The difference is a methyl group over the amine group (Figure 3).
Figure showing the differences between amphetamine and methamphetamine
Amphetamine and methamphetamine differ by only one methyl group. This minor structural difference results in significant differences in the properties of the drug and its effects at the cellular level. 1
Now, consider the structural difference between psilocybin and beocystin (Figure 4).
As discussed earlier, psilocybin differs from baeocystin by a methyl group. For the non-chemist, each of the straight lines coming out of the nitrogen atom (N) represents a CH 3 or methyl group (see FIG. 4). The minor structural difference (by a methyl group) pictured above could potentially have dramatic effects at the cellular level.
However, this does not mean that beocystin and psilocybin have pharmacological differences similar to those known for amphetamine and methamphetamine. The point is, scientists have virtually no idea how the pharmacology of beocystin differs from the pharmacology of psilocybin. The same goes for other derivatives of psilocybin such as aeruginascin.
Go ahead with the research of psilocybin derivatives: Not all magic mushrooms are created equal. According to world-renowned mushroom expert Paul Stamets, there are over 100 known species of psychoactive mushrooms that contain psilocybin, psilocin, beocystin, and norbaeocystin. 2 Testimonials from experience reports on sites like Erowid and Reddit suggest that the subjective effects of these fungi differ considerably. These differences can be understood by (1) studying the chemotype (aka molecular makeup) of each species and (2) correlating the chemotype with the observed effects.
In other words, it would be good and necessary to invest time and money in research into understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of psilocybin and its derivatives. Ultimately, developing a better understanding of magic mushroom molecules will pave the way for the development of properly formulated products.